Electroshock can also be fatal. Estimates of ECT-related death rates vary widely. Professional journals are disinclined to publish reports or studies of ECT-related deaths. Not since 1957 has any journal published a large-scale study of ECT-related deaths (see in the text Impastato’s first entry in 1957).
Individuals with bipolar disorder often spend many years seeking professional help and may get from three to four diagnoses from doctors before receiving a correct diagnosis. Early diagnosis is important as it can lessen the effects of the disorder on the individual. Individuals with bipolar disorder have an approximately 75-80 percent risk for alcohol and substance abuse. Marital fluctuation, chronic unemployment, and suicide are also prevalent.
Documentary on Dr. Walter Freeman, the infamous inventor of the trans-orbital lobotomy.
Scientology can always use the ECT card to discredit psychiatrists and discourage proper mental health treatment, and until it is seen for what it is, psychiatrists practicing it will always have to answer for a dubious treatment that literally relies on brain damage to "treat" the patient, just as they did with lobotomies. This is why patients, while already considered a danger to themselves or they wouldn't be in psychiatric hospitals, are asked to sign waivers in a de facto state of diminished capacity.